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Bronnen over CyberOorlog

Sources on Cyber War

dr. Albert Benschop
Universiteit van Amsterdam
First edition: 2001 — Last edition: 03 October, 2017



  1. Abebe, Daniel

  2. Adams, Gordon / Ben-Ari, Guy

  3. Adhikari, Richard

  4. Addicott, Jeffrey F.

  5. Ahrari, M. Ehsan

  6. Aid, Matthew M.

  7. AIV - Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken

  8. AIVD - Algemene Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdienst

  9. Alberts, David S.

  10. Alberts, David S. / Garstka, John J. / Hayes, Richard E. / Signori, David A.

  11. Alberts, David S. / Hayes, Richard E.

  12. Alberts, David S. / Papp, Daniel S.

  13. Ale, Ben

  14. Alexander, Keith B.

  15. Alford, Lionel D.

  16. Aljazeera

  17. Allen, John R. / Husain, Amir
    • [2017] On Hyperwar
      In: Proceedings Magazine (U.S. Naval Institute) - 143/7/1, 373.

  18. Allhoff, Fritz / Henschke, Adam / Strawser, Jay (eds.)
    • [2016] Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare
      Oxford University Press.
      Major changes in technology, especially military technology, almost always challenge the norms that govern our behavior. These are thet questions raised by firing binary bullets instead of lead bullets that strike at the very center of contemporary intellectual discussion over the ethics of war. Does an aggressive act in the cyber-realm constitute an act of war? If so, what rules should govern such warfare? Are the standard theories of just war capable of analyzing and assessing this mode of conflict? Do the existing rules of engagement and theories from the just war tradition apply to cyberwarfare? How should we assess a cyber-attack conducted by a state agency against private enterprise and vice versa? Furthermore, how should actors behave in the cyber-realm? Are there ethical norms that can be applied to the cyber-realm? Are the classic just war constraints of non-combatant immunity and proportionality possible in this realm?

  19. Anderson, Ross J.

  20. Andress, Jason / Winterfeld, Steve

  21. AP - Associated Press

  22. ARD

  23. Arend, Anthony Clark

  24. Armed Forces Journal (AFJ)

  25. Armed Forces & Society (AFS)

  26. Armistead, Leigh

  27. Arpagian, Nicolas

  28. Arquilla, John J.

  29. Arquilla, John J. / Goldman, Emily O. (eds.)
    • [2014] Cyber Analogies
      DoD IO Center for Research - Naval Postgraduate School. February 28, 2014

  30. Arquilla, John J. / Ronfeldt, David F.

  31. Arquilla, John J. / Rothstein, Hy

  32. Arreguin-Toft, Ivan

  33. Ars Technica

  34. ARTE
    • [15.03.2014] Netwars - Krieg im Netz [53:00]
      Een documentaire van Marcel Kolvenbach die duikt in de verborgen wereld van cyberoorlog. Het sporenonderzoek leidt van de fabrikanten van cyberwapens in Israél, via de rode hackers in China naar de allergrootste hackersconferentie in Amerika. De documentaire begint met een uitspraak van Ian West, directeur cyberveiligheid bij de Nato: “Een enkeling met een laptop kan tegenwoordig meer vernietiging teweegbrengen als een conventioneel wapen zoals een bom!”

    • [2016] Cyberkrieg Russland: Ist der Westen gefährdet? [43:14]

  35. Asia Times

  36. Atlantic, The

  37. Attrition.org
      Een groep die ‘Web defacements’ en andere typen cybermisdaad in de gaten houdt.

  38. Automatiseringsgids

  39. Aviationist, The

  40. Axelrod, Robert / Iliev, Rumen
    • [2013] Timing of cyber conflict
      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 111(4):1298-1303. 6 December 2013.

  41. Azerbaijan Press Agency (APA)

    Index B

  42. Baker, Stewart A. / Dunlap, Charles J.

  43. Balthrop, Justin / Forrest, Stephanie / Newman, M.E.J. / Williamson, Matthew M.

  44. Bamford, James |

  45. Baocun, Wang / Fei, Li
    • [1997] Information warfare
      In: Pillsbury, M (ed.) Chinese views of future warfare.
      Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.

  46. Barford, Paul / Yegneswaran, Vinod

  47. Barkham, Jason

  48. BASIC (British American Security Information Council)

  49. Bateman, Robert A.

  50. BBC

  51. Beaver, Kevin

  52. Beckett, Donald M. / Putnam, Douglas T.

  53. Beer, Thomas

  54. Beidleman, Scott W.
    • [2010] Defining and Deterring Cyber War
      In: Caton, Jeffre L. / Dauber, Cori E. / Groh Jeffrey L. / Smith David J. [2010] Information as Power.
      U.S. Army War College, pp. 69-88.

  55. Bendrath, Ralf

  56. Bergen, Jurre van

  57. Bergman, Ronen

  58. Betz, David J. / Stevens, Tim

  59. Bhattacharjee, Supriyo

  60. Biddle, Stephen

  61. Bieber, Florian

  62. Bilge, Leyla / Dumitras, Tudor

  63. Bits of Freedom (BoF)

  64. Blainey, Geoffrey
    • [1973/88] The Causes of War
      New York: Free Press.
      A study on the causes of war that includes a complete discussion of World War II and the road towards nuclear war. Analyzing all international wars since 1700, this book solves the riddle of why some wars are long and some are short, and demonstrates how the outbreak of peace offers insight into the outbreak of war. Proving that war and peace are alternating phases of a relationship between rival nations, it offers a crucial understanding of international armed conflict.

  65. Blank, Stephen

  66. Bloomberg

  67. Blunden, Bill

  68. Boddens Hosang, J.F.R.
    • [2003] Rules of Engagement: het politiek juridische struikelblok voor de militaire commandant.
      Militair Rechtelijk Tijdschrift, 9.

  69. Boer, Linanne / Lodder, Arno R.

  70. Bogaard, P.L.

  71. Bontchev, Vesselin

  72. Boot, Max

  73. Boothby, William

  74. Bradbury, Roger

  75. Bradbury, Roger / Barrie, Chris / Dmitry Brizhinev

  76. Brenner, Joel

  77. Brenner, Susan W.
    • [2002] Organized Cybercrime? How Cyberspace May Affect the Structure of Criminal Relationships
      North Caroline Journal of Law and Technology 4:1-40.

    • [2009] Cyber Threats: The Emerging Fault Lines of the Nation State
      Oxford University Press.
      As new technologies develop, terrorist groups are developing new methods of attack by using the Internet, and by using cyberspace as a battlefield, it has become increasingly difficult to discover the identity of attackers and bring them to justice. The seemingly limitless boundaries of cyberspace have allowed virtually anyone to launch an attack from a remote and anonymous location. But once these attacks occur, it raises several important questions. Who should respond, and how? How should nation-states effectively deal with a cyber-attack? Will the United States and other nation-states be able to survive in a world where virtual boundaries are limitless? Susan Brenner gives a thorough explanation of how military and law enforcement personnel respond to these attacks and why bringing cyber-terrorist to justice can be difficult and sometimes impossible.

  78. Brewin, Bob

  79. Brito, Jerry / Watkins, Tate

  80. Broos, Elly / Vogelaar, Ad / Fenema, Paul C. van

  81. Bryce-Rogers, Athena

  82. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientist
    • [01.03.2012] Lost in cyberspace: Harnessing the Internet, international relations, and global security - Nazli Choucri / Daniel Goldsmith
    • [07.06.2012] Cyberweapons: Bold steps in a digital darkness? - R. Scott Kemp
      “Cyberweapons do not appear to be capable of mass destruction in the way nuclear weapons clearly are, but they hold at risk some of the most precious assets of our time: the information storage and control mechanisms on which modern society has been built. It is not difficult to imagine catastrophic scenarios such as the destruction of a banking sector, the elimination of a stock market, the flooding of a dam, or the poisoning of a water supply — all initiated by malfunctions induced by malicious software. The United States rushed into the nuclear age eager to cement its technical superiority, causing a decades-long nuclear arms race that threatened global extinction. Before policymakers go too far, they should now take a moment to consider the implications — both intended and unintended — of cyberweapons.”
    • [15.06.2012] Stuxnet and the Bomb - Kennette Benedict
      “Cyberweapons do not appear to be capable of mass destruction in the way nuclear weapons clearly are, but they hold at risk some of the most precious assets of our time: the information storage and control mechanisms on which modern society has been built. It is not difficult to imagine catastrophic scenarios such as the destruction of a banking sector, the elimination of a stock market, the flooding of a dam, or the poisoning of a water supply — all initiated by malfunctions induced by malicious software. The United States rushed into the nuclear age eager to cement its technical superiority, causing a decades-long nuclear arms race that threatened global extinction. Before policymakers go too far, they should now take a moment to consider the implications — both intended and unintended — of cyberweapons. While digital spying has taken place for decades, the era of computer-mediated destruction has only recently begun.”
    • [01.09.2012] A virtual necessity: Some modest steps toward greater cybersecurity - Herbert Lin
    • [17.10.2013] The misunderstood acronym: Why cyber weapons aren’t WMD - Joel Carr
    • [25.08.2014] Cyberwarfare ethics, or how Facebook could accidentally make its engineers into targets - Adam Henschke & Patrick Lin
    • [19.02.2015] Learning from the Sony hack attack - Herbert Lin
    • [15.09.2015] Welcome to Hyperwar - Eric H. Arnett
    • [27.11.2015] Ronald Deibert: Tracking the emerging arms race in cyberspace [interview]
    • [05.08.2016] The quest for cyber norms - Elaine Korzak.
    • [20.09.2016] The cyber nuclear option that might already be in place - Andrew Ivers
    • [22.02.2017] As technology goes democratic, nations lose military control - Ben FitzGerald
      Well-known technologies that challenge militaries’l traditional dominance and threaten their control over technology’ s uses include autonomous vehicles, cyber technologies, and artificial intelligence. As future generations of consequential technologies mature, perhaps including quantum computing and virtual reality, the challenges faced by governments and militaries will only increase. Because governments and international institutions lack methods to successfully grapple with new or not-yet-developed technologies, societies as a whole must be vigilant to the threats that such technologies pose — and must address the stark imbalance between the resources dedicated to developing new technologies and the resources dedicated to governing them.
    • [21.08.2017] “Netwar”: The unwelcome militarization of the Internet has arrived - Jonathan Zittrain
    • Doomsday Dashboard

  83. Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik (BSI)

  84. Burnett, Mark

  85. Burton, Joe - Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

  86. Business Insider

  87. Buzan, Barry / Wæver, Ole / Wilde, Jaap de

  88. Byers, Michael

    Index C

  89. Campen, Alan / Dearth, Douglas / Goodden, R.T.

  90. Canvas

  91. Carnegie

  92. Carr, Jeffrey

  93. Cavelty, Myriam Dunn

  94. CBS News

  95. Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC) - Stanford

  96. Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS)

  97. CERT-UK

  98. Charney, Scott

  99. Chesterman, Simon

  100. ChinaDaily |

  101. Chng, Grace

  102. Choo, Kim-Kwang, Raymond

  103. Choucri, Nazli

  104. Christian Science Monitor

  105. Church, William
    • [1997] Information Warfare Threat Analysis for the United States of America. Part Two: How Many Terrorists Fit on a Computer Keyboard?
      In: Journal of Infrastructural Warfare.

  106. Cimpean, Dan / Meire, Johan

  107. Citizen Lab

  108. Clapper, James R.

  109. Clayton, Mark

  110. Clark, David D.

  111. Clarke, Richard A. / Knake, Robert K.

  112. CNN

  113. Coalson, Robert

  114. Clough, Jonathan

  115. Cohen, F.

  116. Collin, Barry

  117. Colson, Will

  118. Comae Technologies

  119. Computable

  120. Condron, Sean M.

  121. Connolly, Chris

  122. Cook, Richard I.

  123. Cooper, Ricky A. / Van Vliet, Ben

  124. Cordesman, Anthony H. / Cordesman, Justin G.

  125. Cornish, Paul / Livingstone, David / Clemente, Dave

  126. Correspondent, De

  127. Crawford, Emily - University of Sydney, Australia

  128. Crawford, J. W.

  129. Creveld, Martin L. van
    • [1987] Command in War
      Harvard University Press. January 1, 1987.
      Gedetailleerde analyse van het probleem van systemen van militair commando in historisch perspectief: Napoleon, Van Moltke, Israël 1967-73, Verenigde Staten in Vietnam. Succesvolle commandosystemen maken geen gebruik van doorbraaktechnologie, maar organiseerden zichzelf zodanig dat zij met minder informatie konden functioneren. Dit is enerzijds mogelijk door de organisatie zodanig compact te maken dat er minder communicatie nodig is (bijv. de falanx), anderzijds door het zodanig decentraliseren van de besluitvorming dat informatie niet ver omhoog of omlaag in de organisatie moet stromen. Deze informationele efficiëntie wordt gecombineerd met een ‘gerichte telescoop’ die commandanten in staat stelt om zich in detail te concentreren op essentiële punten in het systeem. Tenslotte zijn er informele informatiekanalen die de wielen van het formele communicatiesysteem draaiende houden en het mogelijk maken om in noodsituaties tijdelijk het formele systeem te omzeilen.

    • [1989] Technology and War. From 2000 B.C. to the Present
      New York: Free Press.
      Creveld analyseert het gebruik van technologie over de afgelopen 4.000 jaar en gevolgen voor militaire organisatie, bewapening, logistiek, inlichtingen, communicatie, transport en commando.

    • [1991] The Transformation of War: The Most Radical Reinterpretation of Armed Conflict Since Clausewitz
      Free Press. March 31, 1991.
      Sinds 1945 waren de meeste oorlogen conflicten met een lage intensiteit. In termen van aantal slachtoffers en bereikte politieke resultaten zijn ze onvergelijkbaar met conventionele oorlogen. Creveld analyseert een aantal militaire conflicten tussen reguliere en irreguliere strijdkrachten in Vietnam, Libanon, Afghanistan en elders. Naarmate kleinschalige oorlogen zich verspreiden zullen conventionele strijdkrachten inkrimpen. De last van het beschermen van de samenleving zal verschuiven naar de bloeiende beveiligingsondernemingen. De theorieén van Karl von Clausewitz, die de basis vormde voor het Westerse strategisch denken, zijn grotendeels irrelevant voor niet-politieke oorlogen zoals de islamitische jihad en de overlevingsoorlogen zoals de zesdaagse oorlog van Israél. Aan het monopolie op fysiek geweld door grotere natie-staten komt een einde. Dit monopolie wordt vervangen door een brede schakering van ‘niet-statelijke actoren’ die verantwoordelijk zijn voor bedreigingen van de nationale veiligheid. In de toekomst worden de oorlogen uitgevochten door terroristische groeperingen, guerrilla’s en bandieten die gemotiveerd worden door fanatieke, ideologische loyaliteiten. Conventionele gevechten worden vervangen door schermutselingen, bombardementen en afslachtingen. De wapens zullen eerder minder dan meer geavanceerd worden. De high-tech wapenindustrie zal als een kaartenhuis instorten.

    • [1993] Nuclear Proliferation and the Future of Conflict
      New York: Free Press. December 1993.
      Sinds het einde van de Koude Oorlog is de mogelijkheid van een nucleaire oorlog tussen twee supermachten aanzienlijk kleiner geworden. We maken ons zorgen om kleinere conflicten (tussen Noord- en Zuid-Korea, China en India, India en Pakistan, Israél en de Arabische staten) en vrezen dat frustratie of verbittering ertoe zal leiden dat er naar laatste, ultieme maatregelen wordt gegrepen. Creveld stelt de vraag of angst en respect voor nucleaire wapens voldoende zal zijn om hun gebruik te voorkomen ondanks de haat die zo kenmerkend is voor veel oude regionale rivaliteiten.

    • [1999] The Rise and Decline of the State
      Cambridge University Press. August 28, 1999.
      Een synopsis van de opkomst van de natie-staten en van de krachten die tot hun ondergang kunnen leiden. Creveld analyseert de evolutie van staten door de eeuwen heen en over de hele wereld: voor de staat (prehistorie - 1300 v. Chr.), de opkomst van de staat (1300-1648), de staat als een instrument (1648-1789), de staat als een ideaal (1789-1945), de verspreiding van de staat (1696-1975) en het verval van de staat (1975-?).

    • [1999] De wil tot oorlog
      Interview van Rutger van der Hoeven met Creveld in De Groene Amsterdammer, 31.3.1999

    • [2006] The Changing Face of War: Lessons of Combat, from the Marne to Iraq
      Presidio Press.
      Creveld brengt in dit boek al zijn expertise op het gebied van militaire geschiedenis en strategie bijeen. Hij laat zien waarom machtige staande legers tegenwoordig hulpeloos staat tegenover slecht bewapende opstandelingen en hoe de veiligheid van soevereine naties in de toekomst kan worden gehandhaafd. Hij neemt ons meer op een reis van de botsingen tussen massieve legers in de vorige eeuw (met miljoenen soldaten en miljoenen doden), naar de asymmetrische high-tech schermutselingen en frustrerende moerassen van vandaag. De moderne oorlog is een mengsel van het antieke en het geavanceerd: hoogwaardige professionele legers slagen er niet in om kleine groepen van primitief uitgeruste guerrilla’s en terroristen te verslaan. Dit patroon begon met de Britse uittocht uit India en culmineerde in het rampzalige Amerikaanse optreden in Vietnaam en Irak.
      Nederlandse vertaling: De evolutie van de oorlog. Van de Marne tot Irak. Utrecht: Spectrum 2007.

    • [2009] The Culture of War
      Presidio Press. September 30, 2008.
      In theorie is oorlogvoeren slechts een middel om een doel te bereiken; een rationele, doch gewelddadige activiteit die de belangen van een groep mensen dient door het doden, verwonden of op een andere manier onschadelijk maken van hun tegenstanders. In de praktijk echter is niets minder waar. Creveld laat zien dat oorlog veel meer is dan soldaten die elkaar om welke reden ook doden. Vechten zelf kan een bron van groot, misschien zelfs het grootste, genoegen zijn. Vanuit dit genoegen en deze fascinatie is een hele cultuur onstaan: van de oorlogsschilderingen van tribale strijders tot de hedendaagse legerkleding, van de decoratieve schilden van de oude Grieken tot de neuskunst van tegenwoordig, en van de uitvinding van schaken rond 600 n. Chr. tot de meest moderne gevechtssimulators. Sinds het begin van de civilisatie heeft de oorlogscultuur zijn eigen tradities, regels en gewoontes, rituelen en ceremonies, muziek, kunst, literatuur en monumenten. De oorlogscultuur stond meestal in zeer hoog aanzien, al wordt zij in meer geavanceerde landen vaak als ‘militaristisch’ afgedaan. De waarheid echter is dat oorlogscultuur geenszins ‘nutteloos’ is. Oorlogvoeren is in de kern een irrationele activiteit is — geen enkele rationele overweging doet de soldaat besluiten om zijn leven op te offeren. Neem de oorlogscultuur weg en al dat overblijft zijn wilde hordes, zoals in Sierra Leone en Oost-Timor; of zielloze machines als de hedendaagse Bundeswehr; of mannen zonder ruggengraat, ongeschikt en niet genegen om de strijd aan te gaan.
      Nederlandse vertaling: Oorlogscultuur. Houten: Spectrum. 2009.

  130. Crosston, Matthew D.

  131. Crimes of War

  132. Cyber Defense Review (CDR)

  133. CyberFeed
      Niet erg interactieve kaart van cyberinfectie (niet zozeer cyberaanvallen). Presented by Anubis Networks.

  134. Cybergeddon

  135. Cyber Intelligence Center

  136. Cyberthreat Real Time Map
      Lijkt op een interactief videospel. Onder de 3-D dynamische kaart schuilen de data van diverse scanningdiensten van Kasperski. Je kunt bepaalde types kwaadaardige dreigingen selecteren, zoals email malware, aanvallen op websites, controles op kwetsbaarheid etc.
      Presented by Kaspersky.

  137. CyberWarZone (CWZ)

  138. Czosseck, C. / Tyuhu, E. / Wingfields, T. (eds.)

    Index D

  139. Dacey, Robert

  140. Danchev, Dancho

  141. Darczewska, Jolanta

  142. DARPA - Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency [2012]

  143. DarkReading

  144. Davis, Noopur

  145. Defense Science Board (DSB)

  146. Deibert, Ronald J.

  147. Deibert, Ronald / Palfrey, John / Rafal Rohozinski / Zittran, Jonathan (eds.)
    • [2008] Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
      Cambridge: MIT Press, March 2008.
      Many countries around the world block or filter internet content, denying access to information that they deem too sensitive for ordinary citizens —most often about politics, but sometimes relating to sexuality, culture, or religion. Internet filtering takes place in more than three dozen states worldwide, including many countries in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa. Related internet content-control mechanisms are also in place in Canada, the United States and a cluster of countries in Europe. Access Denied examines the political, legal, social, and cultural contexts of Internet filtering in these states from a variety of perspectives. Chapters discuss the mechanisms and politics of internet filtering, the strengths and limitations of the technology that powers it, the relevance of international law, ethical considerations for corporations that supply states with the tools for blocking and filtering, and the implications of internet filtering for activist communities that increasingly rely on Internet technologies for communicating their missions. Reports on content regulation in forty different countries follow, with each two-page country profile outlining the types of content blocked by category and documenting key findings.

    • [2010] Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights, and Rule in Cyberspace
      Cambridge: MIT Press. April 29, 2010.
      Internet filtering, censorship of Web content, and online surveillance are increasing in scale, scope, and sophistication around the world, in democratic countries as well as in authoritarian states. The first generation of internet controls consisted largely of building firewalls at key Internet gateways; China’s famous ‘Great Firewall of China’ is one of the first national internet filtering systems. Today the new tools for Internet controls that are emerging go beyond mere denial of information. These new techniques, which aim to normalize (or even legalize) Internet control, include targeted viruses and the strategically timed deployment of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, surveillance at key points of the internet’s infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent terms of usage policies, and national information shaping strategies.

    • [2011] Access Contested: Security, Identity, and Resistance in Asian Cyberspace
      Cambridge: MIT Press. November 3, 2011.
      A daily battle for rights and freedoms in cyberspace is being waged in Asia. At the epicenter of this contest is China —home to the world’s largest Internet population and what is perhaps the world’s most advanced Internet censorship and surveillance regime in cyberspace. Resistance to China’s Internet controls comes from both grassroots activists and corporate giants such as Google. Meanwhile, similar struggles play out across the rest of the region, from India and Singapore to Thailand and Burma, although each national dynamic is unique. The authors examine the interplay of national security, social and ethnic identity, and resistance in Asian cyberspace, offering in-depth accounts of national struggles against Internet controls.

  148. Deibert, Ronald J. / Rohozinsky, Rafal

  149. Demchak, Chris C.

  150. Demchak, Chris C. / Dombrowskyi, Peter
    • [2011] The Rise of a Cybered Westphalian Age
      Strategic Studies Quarterley, 32 :32-61.
    • [2014] Cyber Westphalia. Asserting state prerogatives in cyberspace.
      In: The Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. International Engagement on Cyber iii. State Building on a New Frontier, 20: 29-38

  151. Dempsey, Martin E.

  152. DeNardis, Laura
    • [2009] Protocol Politics: The Globalization of Internet Governance
      MIT Press. July 31, 2009.
      The internet has reached a critical point. The world is running out of Internet addresses. There is a finite supply of approximately 4.3 billion IP-addresses within the prevailing technical architecture (IPv4). In the 1990s the internet standards community selected a new protocol (IPv6) that would expand the number of Internet addresses exponentially — to 340 undecillion addresses. What’s at stake politically, economically, and technically in the selection and adoption of a new internet protocol? DeNardis argues that protocols are political. IPv6 intersects with provocative topics including internet civil liberties, US military objectives, globalization, institutional power struggles, and the promise of global democratic freedoms. She offers recommendations for internet standards governance, based not only on technical concerns but on principles of openness and transparency.

    • [2014] The global war for internet governance
      New Haven: Yale University Press.
      Internet has transformed the manner in which information is exchanged and business is conducted. Despite its wide reach and powerful global influence, it is a medium uncontrolled by any one centralized system, organization, or governing body. This has given rise to all manner of free-speech issues and cybersecurity concerns. The conflicts surrounding internet governance are the new spaces where political and economic power is unfolding in the twenty-first century. DeNardis reveals the inner power structure already in place within the architectures and institutions of internet governance. She provides a theoretical framework for internet governance that takes into account the privatization of global power as well as the role of sovereign nations and international treaties. In addition, DeNardis explores what is at stake in open global controversies and stresses the responsibility of the public to actively engage in these debates, because Internet governance will ultimately determine Internet freedom.

  153. Denning, Dorothy E.

  154. Denning, Dorothy E. / Baugh, William E., Jr.

  155. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

  156. Digital Attack Map
      De kaart wordt gevoed door meer dan 270 ISP klanten over de hele wereld die anoniem statistieken over netwerkverkeers- en cyberaanvallen delen.
      Gepresenteerd door Arbor Networks.

  157. Dinstein, Yoram

  158. Dittrich, David / Himma, Kenneth Eimair

  159. Doman, Chris

  160. Donoghue, Andrew

  161. Droege, Cordula

  162. Ducheine, Paul A.L.

  163. Ducheine, Paul A.L. / Haaster, Jelle van

  164. Ducheine, Paul / Osinga, Frans / Soeters, Joseph

  165. Ducheine, Paul A.L. / Voetelink, Joop E.D.

  166. Dunlap, Charles J.

    Index E

  167. EastWest Institute (EWI)

  168. EenVandaag

  169. Economist, The

  170. Ederington, L. Benjamin / Mazarr, Michael J.

  171. Electrospaces

  172. Ellis, Bryan W.

  173. Elmusharaf, Mudawi Mukhtar

  174. Enemies of the internet

  175. ENISA - European Network and Information Security Agency

  176. Erbschloe, Michael

  177. Eshel, David

  178. Esquire

  179. Ethical Hacker Network, The

  180. Euromaidan

  181. European CyberCrime Centre (EC3)

  182. European Union (EU)

  183. Europol

  184. Even, S. / Siman-Tov, D.
    • [2012] Cyber Warfare: Concepts and Strategic Trends.
      Memorandum nr. 117 of the Institute for National Security Studies (INSS).

  185. Express

  186. Exter, Martin P. van

    Index F

  187. Falliere, Nicolas

  188. FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation

  189. Fels, Enrico / Kremer, Jan-Frederik / Kronenberg, Katharina (eds.)

  190. Fifth Domain Cyber

  191. Financial Times (FT)

  192. Financieel Dagblad (FD)

  193. Fitzgerald, Mary C.

  194. Fleck, Dieter

  195. Fletcher, Owen

  196. Floridi, Luciano

  197. Folmer, Hans

  198. Forbes

  199. Ford, Christopher A.

  200. Foreign Affairs (FA)

  201. Foreign Policy (FP)

  202. Forum InformatikerInnen für Frieden und gesellschaftliche Verantwortung (FIfF)

  203. Fox It |

  204. Foxall, Andrew

  205. Foxman, Simone

  206. Frankfurter Algemeine (FAZ)

  207. Freedman, David H. / Mann, Charles C.
    • [1997] At Large: The Strange Case of the World’s Biggest Internet Invasion
      New York: Touchstone.
      A chronicle of the massive manhunt that united hard-nosed FBI agents, computer nerds, and uptight security bureaucrats against an elusive computer outlaw who broke into highly secured computer systems at banks, universities, federal agencies, top-secret military weapons-research sites, and even into the computers that controlled central California’s dams. It is the true story of Phantom Dialer. His actions could have put tens of thousands of lives at risk. And what makes it so frightening is that he was not a criminal or computing genius. He was a curious, persistent, and mentally-challenged young man who never truly understood his own actions. Advances in the internet have been making it easier, not harder, for security crackers to go where they’re not wanted. The authors blow the lid off the frightening vulnerability of the global online network, which leaves not only systems, but also individuals, exposed.

  208. Freedman, Lawrence

  209. Fritz, Jason R

  210. Fulghum, David A.

  211. Futter, Andrew

    Index G

  212. Gai, Jiading / Yao, Chen / Ye, Mao

  213. Gartzke, Erik

  214. Gartzke, Erik / Jon R. Linday

  215. Gaycken, Sandro

  216. Geers, Kenneth

  217. Gertz, Bill

  218. Gibney, Alex
    • [2016] Zero Days - Trailer
      Een documentaire thriller over oorlog in een wereld zonder regels — de wereld van cyberoorlog. Het vertelt het verhaal over Stuxnet. Het laat zien hoe een clandestine operatie van twee bondgenoten de doos van Pandora van cyberoorlog voor altijd opende.

  219. Gibson, William
    • [1984] Neuromancer
      Gibson coined and defined cyberspace as a “graphic representation of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system.”

  220. Giles, Keir

  221. Giles, Keir / Monaghan, Andrew

  222. Gjelten, Tom

  223. Gladwell, Malcolm

  224. Glenny, Misha

  225. GlobalSecurity.org

  226. Global Security Map

  227. Goff, Peter
    • [1999] (ed.) The Kosovo News and Propaganda War.
      Vienna: International Press Institute.

  228. Goldsmith, Jack

  229. Gollmann, Dieter

  230. Goodman, Will

  231. Graham, David E.

  232. Gray, Chris Hables

  233. Greenberg, Andy

  234. Greenberg, Lawrence, T. / Goodman, Seymour E. / Soo Hoo, Kevin J.

  235. Guangqioan, Peng / Youzhi, Yao (eds.)

  236. Guardian, The

  237. Gulijk, Coen van

    Index H

  238. Hackmageddon

  239. Hadnagy, Chris

  240. Hagestad, William T.

  241. Haley, Christopher

  242. Halpern, Sue

  243. Halpin, Edward F. / Trovorrow, Philippa / Webb, David C. / Wright, Steve

  244. Handel, Michael I.

  245. Harknett, Richard J.

  246. Hartmann, Kim / Giles, Keir

  247. Hastings, Max

  248. Hathaway, Oona / Crootof, Rebecca

  249. Hayward, Ryan J.

  250. Hayden, Michael V.

  251. Heise Security

  252. Hendershott, Terence / Jones, Charles M. / Menkveld, Albert J.

  253. Henderson, Scott

  254. Hersh, Seymour Myron

  255. Herzog, Stephen

  256. Heuvel, Marten / Botterman, Maarten / Spiegeleire, Stephan de

  257. Hill, David T. / Sen, Krishna

  258. Hoffman, Frank G.

  259. Holdaway, Eric J.

  260. Hollis, David M.

  261. Honeynet Project
    • [2012] A Real-Time Map of Global Cyberattacks
      Op de kaart zijn cyberaanvallen te zien die op dat moment in de wereld plaatsvinden. De kaart van het Honeynet Project toont zoveel aanvallen dat het lijkt alsof je naar een scene zit te kijken van een apocalyptische oorlogsfilm. Elke rode stip die oplicht als je naar de kaart gaat representeert een aanval op een computer. De gele punten representeren honeypots (systemen die zijn opgezet om inkomende aanvallen te registreren). In het zwarte veld onderaan kun je zien waar elke aanval vandaan komt. De gegevens komen van de leden van het netwerk van het Honeynet Project van honeypot sensoren. Ook al worden lang niet alle cyberaanvallen in kaart gebracht, het geeft een verbazingwekkend beeld van de hoeveelheid malware dat computernetwerken aanvalt.

  262. Hoskins, Andrew / Liu, Yi-Kai / Relkuntwar, Anil

  263. Houqing, Wang / Xingye, Zhang
    • [2000] (eds.) The Science of Military Campaigns.
      Beijing, NDU Press.

  264. Huffington Post, The

  265. Hulsma, Sander

  266. Hurwitz, Roger

    Index I

  267. Iasiello, Emilio

  268. IEEE Spectrum

  269. IEEE Xplore

  270. Ignatieff, Michael

  271. Independent

  272. Information Office of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China

  273. Infowars

  274. Institut français des relations internationales (IFRI)

  275. Intelligence Online

  276. Intercept, The

  277. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
    • [01.02.2011] Stuxnet could harm nuclear safety - Fredrik Dahl 4 MIN READ
      Yukia Amano, de algemene directeur van het IAEA: “Stuxnet, or cyber attack as a whole, could be quite detrimental to the safety of nuclear facilities and operations.” Hij erkent dat de IAEA slechts beperkte kennis heeft over de computerworm die door sommige experts wordt beschreven als «a first-of-its-kind guided cyber missile».

  278. International Center for Security Analyses (ICSA)

  279. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism (IJCWT)

  280. International Law Studies (ILS)

    Index J

  281. Jane’s 360

  282. Japan Times, The

  283. Javers, Eamon

  284. Jensen, Eric Talbot

  285. Jerusalem Post, The

  286. Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)

  287. Jones, Andy / Kovacich, Gerald L. / Luzwick, Perry G.

  288. Jordan, Tom / Taylor, Paul A.

  289. Journal of Information Warface

  290. Journal of Military Ethics

  291. Journal of Strategic Studies (JSS)

  292. Joyal, Paul M.

  293. Joyner, Christopher C. / Lotrionte, Catherine

  294. Jun, Jenny / LaFoy, Scott / Sohn, Ethan

    Index K

  295. Kaplan, Fred

  296. Kapros-Anastasiadis, Georgios

  297. Karnow, Curtis E.A.

  298. KarsperskyLab |

  299. Kello, Lucas

  300. Kelsey, Jeffry T.G.

  301. Kenyon, Henry S.

  302. Knake, Robert K.

  303. Koh, Harold Hongju
    • [2010] The Obama Administration and International Law
      Speech, American Society of International Law, 25 March 2010.
    • [2012] International Law in Cyberspace
      Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 54.
        Presents cutting-edge issues of international law: how do we apply old laws of war to new cyber-circumstances, staying faithful to enduring principles, while accounting for changing times and technologies? Do established principles of international law apply to cyberspace? Is cyberspace a law-free zone, where anything goes? Do cyber activities ever constitute a use of force? May a State ever respond to a computer network attack by exercising a right of national self-defense? Do jus in bello rules apply to computer network attacks? Must attacks distinguish between military and nonmilitary objectives? Must attacks adhere to the principle of proportionality? How should states assess their cyber weapons? What role does state sovereignty play?

  304. Kolen, Bas

  305. Kolen, Bas / Wouters, C.A.H.

  306. Kopp, Carlo

  307. Koppel, Ted

  308. Kosina, Karin

  309. Kotler, Itzik

  310. Kramer, Franklin D. / Starr, Stuart H. / Wentz, Larry (eds.)

  311. Krebs, Brian

  312. KrebsonSecurity

  313. Krekel, Bryan

  314. Krepinevich, Andrew F.

  315. Kruit, P.J.J. van der

  316. Kugler, Richard L.

  317. Kuntsman, Adi / Stein, Rebecca L.
    • [2015] Digital Militarism: Israel's Occupation in the Social Media Age
      Stanford University Press.
      Israel's occupation has been transformed in the social media age. Over the last decade, military rule in the Palestinian territories grew more bloody and entrenched. In the same period, Israelis became some of the world's most active social media users. In Israel today, violent politics are interwoven with global networking practices, protocols, and aesthetics. Israeli soldiers carry smartphones into the field of military operations, sharing mobile uploads in real-time. Official Israeli military spokesmen announce wars on Twitter. And civilians encounter state violence first on their newsfeeds and mobile screens. Across the globe, the ordinary tools of social networking have become indispensable instruments of warfare and violent conflict. This book traces the rise of Israeli digital militarism in this global context — both the reach of social media into Israeli military theaters and the occupation's impact on everyday Israeli social media culture. It demonstrates how information technologies can slowly and subtly transform into new weapons of war and contribute to a process of domestication of violence in a context of prolonged military occupation. Today, social media functions as a crucial theater in which the Israeli military occupation is supported and sustained.

    Index L

  318. Ladurner, U. / Pham, K.

  319. Langner, Ralf

  320. Lawfare

  321. Lawson, Sean

  322. Leonhard, Robert

  323. Lessig, Lawrence |

  324. Leverett, Éireann

  325. Leveson, Nancy G.

  326. Lewis, James Andrew

  327. Lewis, Michael

  328. Liang, Qiao / Xiangsui, Wang
    • [1999] Unrestricted Warfare
      Beijing: PLA Literature and Arts Publishing House.
      Irregular Warfare is a violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations. Irregular Warfare favors indirect approaches and asymmetric means. A central component of Irregular Warfare is unconventional warfare, which employs “activities conducted to enable a resistance movement or insurgency to coerce, disrupt, or overthrow a government or occupying power by operating through or with an underground, auxiliary, and guerilla force in a denied area.” Another definition of Irregular Warfare outlines the achievement of “strategic objectives by avoiding an adversary’s conventional military strength while eroding an adversary’s power and will, primarily through the use of indirect, non-traditional aspects of warfare.”

  329. Libicki, Martin C. | - Rand Corporation

  330. Liff, Adam P.

  331. Liles, Samual P.

  332. Lin, Herbert S.

  333. Lindsay, Jon R. / Cheung, Tai Ming / Reveron, Derek S.

  334. Longstaff, Tom

  335. Lips, Wouter

  336. Lonsdale, David J. - University of Hull, UK

  337. Loon, Collin E.P. van

  338. Lord, Kristin / Sharp, Travis

  339. Lucas, George, R.

  340. Lyu, Michael R.

    Index M

  341. MacEvoy Manjikian, Mary

  342. Mack, Andrew

  343. Mandiant

  344. Maio, Paola di

  345. Makuch, Ben

  346. Malwareinfo.nl

  347. Manwaring, Max G.

  348. Markoff, John

  349. Markoff, John / Barboza, David

  350. Markoff, John / Kramer, Andrew E.

  351. McAfee

  352. McConnell, Steve

  353. McDermott, Roger N. / Nygren, Bertil / Pallin, Caroline Vendil

  354. McGraw, Gary
    • [2006] Software Security: Building Security In.
      Boston, NY: Addison-Wesley.

  355. McGraw, Gary / Arce, Ivan

  356. Menkveld, Albert

  357. Menthe, Darrel

  358. Meyer, Paul

  359. Milevski, Lucas

  360. Militaire Spectator

  361. Military Review

  362. Military Thought

  363. Mills, Elinor

  364. Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken

  365. Ministerie van Defensie

  366. Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie

  367. MIT Technology Review

  368. Mitnick, Kevin D. / Simon, William L.

  369. Missile Defense Advocacy Alliance - MDAA

  370. MIVD - Militaire Inlichtingen- en Veligiheidsdienst

  371. Molander, Roger C. / Wilson, Peter A. / Mussington, B. David / Mesic, Richard

  372. Monde, Le

  373. Morgan, Patrick M.

  374. Morozov, Evgeny |

  375. Mueller, Benjamin

  376. Mueller, John / Friedman, Benjamin

  377. Mulvenon, James C.

  378. Mulvenon, James C. / Yang, Richard H.

    Index N

  379. Nationaal Coördinator Terrorismebestrijding en Veiligheid (NCTV)

  380. Nationaal CrisisCentrum (NCC)

  381. Nationaal Cyber Security Centrum (NCSC)

  382. National Interest, The

  383. National Research Council (NRC)

  384. National Security Journal (NSJ) - Harvard Law School

  385. NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  386. NBC News

  387. Nederlands Dagblad (ND)

  388. Neilson, Robert E. (ed.)
    [1997] Sun Tzu and Information War
    Washington, DC: National Defense University Press.

  389. Netkwesties

  390. NewScientist

  391. Newsweek

  392. New Yorker, The

  393. New York Times, The (NYT)

  394. Nextgov

  395. NOS

  396. NRC

  397. NU.nl

  398. Nye, Joseph S.

    Index O

  399. O’Connel, Mary Ellen

  400. OECD

  401. Odinot, G. / Jong, D. de / Leij, J.B.J. van der / Poot, C.J. de / Straalen, E.K. van

  402. O’Harrow, Robert

  403. Ohlin, Jens David / Govern, Kevin / Finkelstein, Claire
    • [2015] (eds.) Cyber War: Law and Ethics for Virtual Conflicts
      Oxford University Press.
      Cyberweapons and cyberwarfare are one of the most dangerous innovations of recent years, and a significant threat to national security. Cyberweapons can imperil economic, political, and military systems by a single act, or by multifaceted orders of effect, with wide-ranging potential consequences. Cyberwarfare occupies an ambiguous status in the conventions of the laws of war. The authors address ethical and legal issues surrounding cyberwarfare by considering whether the Laws of Armed Conflict (LOAC) apply to cyberspace and the ethical position of cyberwarfare against the background of our generally recognized moral traditions in armed conflict. The authors explore these moral and legal issues and examine the key principles of jus in bello to determine how they might be applied to cyber conflicts. The distinction between civilian and combatant in this context and the level of causation necessary to elicit a response are studied and the specific operational realities implicated by particular regulatory regimes are analyzed.

  404. Olson, Parmy

  405. Ondřejka, Jan / Stojar, Richard

  406. Osawa, Jun

  407. Ottis, Rain

  408. Owens, William / Dam, Kenneth / Lin, Herbert

  409. OWNI

    Index P

  410. Parool, Het

  411. Paul, T.V.

  412. PCCIP - President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection

  413. PCWorld

  414. Perrow, Charles

  415. Pont, George F. du

  416. Politico Magazine

  417. Pollitt, Mark M.
    • [1997] Cyberterrorism Fact or Fancy?
      Proceedings of the 20th National Information Systems Security Conference, October 1997, pp. 285-289.

  418. Popular Science

  419. Pouget, Fabien / Dacier, Marc / Debar, Hervé

  420. Pouw, Eric

  421. Prince, Brian

  422. Public Intelligence

  423. Pufeng, Wang

    Index R

  424. Radasky, William A.

  425. Ranito, Jovana Jezdimirovic

  426. Ranum, Markus J.

  427. Rattray, Gregory J.

  428. Ravi, Dan / Melman, Yossi

  429. Rawnsley, Gary D.

  430. Reed, Thomas C.

  431. Reijnen, G.C.M.

  432. Reisman, W. Michael / Antoniou, Chris T. (eds.)

  433. Reformatorisch Dagblad

  434. Register, The

  435. Renz, Bettina / Smith, Hanna (eds.)

  436. Reuters

  437. Reveron, Derek
    • [2012] (ed.) From Cybersecurity to Cyberwar
      Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
      In a very short time, individuals and companies have harnessed cyberspace to create new industries, a vibrant social space, and a new economic sphere that are intertwined with our everyday lives. At the same time, individuals, subnational groups, and governments are using cyberspace to advance interests through malicious activity. Terrorists recruit, train, and target through the Internet, hackers steal data, and intelligence services conduct espionage. Still, the vast majority of cyberspace is civilian space used by individuals, businesses, and governments for legitimate purposes. The editor brougth together scholars, policy analysts, and information technology executives to examine current and future threats to cyberspace. They discuss various approaches to advance and defend national interests, contrast the US approach with European, Russian, and Chinese approaches, and offer new ways and means to defend interests in cyberspace and develop offensive capabilities to compete there.

    • [2016] How Cyberspace is Transforming International Security

  438. Rid, Thomas

  439. Rid, Thomas / McBurney, Peter

  440. Rogovoy, Aleksandr V. / Giles, Keir

  441. Ronfeldt, David / Arguilla, John / Fuller, Graham E. / Fuller, Melissa

  442. Roscini, Marco
    • [2010] World Wide Warfare - Jus ad bellum and the Use of Cyber Force
      In: A. von Dogdandy / R. Wolfrum (eds.) [2010] Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, Volume 14: pp. 85-130.

    • [2014] Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law
      Oxford University Press.
      The internet has changed the rules of many industries, and war is no exception. But can a computer virus be classed as an act of war? Does a Denial of Service attack count as an armed attack? And does a state have a right to self-defence when cyber attacked? With the range and sophistication of cyber operations against states dramatically increasing in recent times, Roscini investigates the traditional concepts of ‘use of force’, ‘armed attack’ and ‘armed conflict’ and, through a comprehensive analysis of primary documents as well as through an extensive literature search, asks whether and how existing laws created in the analogue age can be applied in a digital age. For each rule, whether based on treaty or custom, is explained why it applies or does not apply to cyber operations. Having established a basis for contending that particular rules apply to cyber warfare, those rules are discussed in the context of each specific type of cyber operation. The book addresses questions such as whether a cyber operation amounts to a use of force and, if so, whether the victim state can exercise its right of self-defence; whether cyber operations trigger the application of international humanitarian law; what rules must be followed in the conduct of cyber hostilities; how neutrality is affected by cyber operations; whether those conducting cyber operations are combatants, civilians, or civilians taking direct part in hostilities.

  443. RSA

  444. Russell, Alison Lawler
    • [2014] Cyber Blokacdes
      Georgetown University Press.
      Cyber blockades are large-scale attacks on infrastructure or systems that aim to prevent an entire state from sending or receiving electronic data. Cyber blockades can take place through digital, physical, and/or electromagnetic means. Blockade operations have historically been considered acts of war, thus their emergence in cyberspace has significant implications for international law and for our understanding of cyber warfare. The author defines and explains the emerging concept of ‘cyber blockades’ and presents a comparison of blockade operations in five different domains —on land, at sea, in the air, in space, and in cyberspace— identifying common elements as well as important distinctions. The framework for defining cyber blockades, understanding how they occur, and considering the motivations of actors who employ them is applied with in-depth analysis of the cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and on Georgia during the 2008 Georgia-Russia War. Blockade operations have occurred in cyberspace and will doubtlessly be used again in the future, by both state and non-state actors alike, because of the unique advantages of this type of attack.

  445. Rutherford, Mark

  446. Ruus, Kertu

  447. Ryan, Patrick S.

    Index S

  448. Saalbach, Klaus-Peter

  449. Sanger, David E.
    • [2012] Confront and Conceal: Obama’s Secret Wars and Surprising Use of American Power
      New York: Crown.
      Sanger beschrijft hoe een nieuwe president president wordt in een wereld die in brand staat. Hij laat zien hoe Obama omgaat met de internationale conflicten en daarbij vertrouwt op innovatieve wapens en nieuwe instrumenten om de Amerikaanse supermacht te beschermen. Maar zijn poging om de Amerikaanse suprematie in de Stille Oceaan te herstellen leidde tot een nieuw tijdperk van spanningen met de grootste opkomende macht in de wereld: China.

    • [2012] Mutually assured Cyberdestruction?
      In: New York Times, 02.06.2012.

    • [2014] Syria War Stirs New U.S. Debate on Cyberattacks
      In: New York Times, 24.02.2014.

    • [2016] As Russian Hackers Probe, NATO Has No Clear Cyberwar Strategy
      In: International New York Times, 16.7.2016
      De Westerse alliantie (NATO) moet een strategie ontwikkelen om de toenemende agressieve acties van Rusland in cyberspace tegemoet te treden. De NATO heeft weliswaar aangekondigd dat een cyberaanval op een van haar lidstaten als een aanval op de hele alliantie wordt bestempeld, maar zij heeft geen agressieve tegenmaatregelen genomen tegen dagelijkse spionage van en aanvallen op Europese computernetwerken. Er wordt gesproken over deling van informatie en desknndigheid, maar er wordt niets gezegd over afschrikkingsstrategieén en vroege waarschuwingssystemen. De lidstaten zijn te terughoudend om hun offensieve capaciteiten met elkaar te delen.

  450. SANS Institute

  451. SCADAhacker.com

  452. Scarfone, Karen / Mell, Peter

  453. Schaap, Arie J.

  454. Schelling, Thomas C.

  455. Scheferman, Scott

  456. Schmitt, Michael N.

  457. Schneier, Bruce

  458. Schonfeld, Erick

  459. Schreier, Fred
    • [2012] On Cyberwarfare
      DCAF (Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces).

  460. Schwartau, Winn

  461. SecureList

  462. Security Affairs - Pierluigi Paganini

  463. Security Challenges

  464. Security Week

  465. Security.nl

  466. SentinelOne

  467. Seshagiri, Girish

  468. Shackleford, Scott J.

  469. Shakarian, Paulo / Lei, Hansheng / Lindelauf, Roy

  470. Sharp, Walter Gary
    • [1999] Cyberspace and the Use of Force.
      San Antonio, TX: Aegis Research Corp.

  471. Shin, Yonghee / Willams, Laurie

  472. Sicherheitstacho.eu
      Een in real-time bijgewerkte wereldkaart die laat zien vanuit welke landen cyberaanvallen worden uitgevoerd. Deutsche Telekom verzamelt de data van 180 sensoren die werken als lokaas-systemen (honeypots) op verschillende plekken in de wereld. De top 7 landen die als bron van cyberaanvallen worden geregisteerd zijn in 2017: China, Verenigde Staten, Vietnam, Frankrijk, Rusland, Duitsland en Taiwan. Het ‘Fruhwarnungssystem’ is opgezet en wordt onderhouden door Deutsche Telekom AG (DTAG).

  473. Singer, Peter W.

  474. Singer, Peter W. / Cole, August
    • [2016] Ghost Fleet: A Novel of the Next World War
      Een roman die leest als science fiction, maar die stijf staat van gruwelijke details over hoe de volgende wereldoorlog zou kunnen worden uitgevochten. Kapiteins van slagschepen vechten zich door een hedendaags Pearl Harbor; gevechtspiloten duelleren met onzichbare drones; jonge hackers strijden in digitale speelplaatsen; veteraren worden gedwongen om als low-tech opstandelingen te vechten; biljonairs uit Silicon Valley mobiliseren al hun bronnen voor de cyberoorlog; en een seriemoordenaar voert haar eigen vete uit.

  475. Singer, Peter W. / Friedman, Allan

  476. Singh, Abhishek

  477. Singh, Abhishek / Lambert, Scott / Ganarcharya, Tanmay A. / Williams, Jeff

  478. SIPRI
    Trends in world military expenditure, 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015

  479. Sklerov, Matthew J.

  480. Slate

  481. Small Wars Journal (SWJ)

  482. Smith, George C.

  483. Smith, Ron / Knight, Scott

  484. Soldatov, Andrei / Borogan, Irina

  485. Solomon, Jonathan

  486. Somayaji, Anil / Hofmeyr, Steven / Forrest, Stephanie

  487. Sorensen, John / Matsuoka, Atsuko

  488. South China Morning Post (SCMP)

  489. Spiegel, Der

  490. Spitzner, Lance

  491. SpyFiles

  492. Spy Museum

  493. Sridharan, Venkatraman

  494. Standaard, de

  495. Stein, George J.

  496. Stevens, Marc

  497. Stiennon, Richard
    • [2010] Surviving Cyberwar
      Lanham: Government Institutes.
      The next major war is not likely to be fought on the battleground but in cyber space. The era of cyber warfare has already begun. Recent cyber attacks on United States government departments and the Pentagon corroborate this claim. China has compromised email servers at the German Chancellery, Whitehall, and the Pentagon. In August 2008, Russia launched a cyber attack against Georgia that was commensurate with their invasion of South Ossetia. This was the first time that modern cyber attacks were used in conjunction with a physical attack. Every day, thousands of attempts are made to hack into America’s critical infrastructure. These attacks could have devastating consequences. Stiennon outlines an effective defense against cyber threats, and explains how to prepare for future attacks.

    • [2015] There Will Be Cyberwar: How The Move To Network-Centric War Fighting Has Set The Stage For Cyberwar
      IT-Harvest Press. March 23, 2015.
      The move on the part of the US military, which began in 1996, to Network-Centric Warfare (NCW), meant the combination of sensor grids, C&C grids, and precision targeting to increase speed to command, and represented a military offset. Along with networking comes exposure to cyber attacks, attacks that will be used in future wars.

  498. Stocker, Gerfrie / Schöpf, Christine (eds.)

  499. Stockton, Paul N. / Golabek-Goldman, Michele

  500. Stoll, Clifford

  501. Strategic Studies Institute (SSI)

  502. StrategyPage

  503. Survival: Global Politics and Strategy

  504. Swimmer, Morton

  505. Symantec

    Index T

  506. Talbot, Julian / Jakeman, Miles

  507. Tan, Kheng Lee Gregory

  508. TASS

  509. Taylor, Philipo M.

  510. Team Cymru

  511. TechCrunch

  512. Tech Worm

  513. Ted Talk

  514. Telegraaf, De

  515. Telegraph, The

  516. Tenet, George J.
    • [2001] Statement door de directeur van CIA voor “Worldwide Threat 2001: National Security in a Changing World”.

  517. Terrorism Research Center, The (TRC)
      Een onafhankelijk instituut dat zich richt op de bestudering van terrorisme, informatie-oorlog, bescherming van critische infrastructuur en andere thema’s die de maken hebben met politiek geweld van lage intensiteit en de verschijnselen van de ‘grijze zone’.

  518. Thomas, Timothy L. - Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS

  519. Thornton, Rod

  520. Tikk, Enekin / Kaska, Kadri / Rünnimeri, Kristel /Kert, Mari / Talihärm, Anna-Maria / Vihul, Lliis

  521. Tikk, Enekin / Kaska, Kadri / Vihul, Lliis

  522. Time

  523. Times, The

  524. TNO: Cyber Security & Resilience

  525. Todd, Graham H.

  526. Toffler, Alvin / Toffler, Heidi

  527. Trendle, Giles

  528. Trend Micro

  529. Trouw

  530. Tsang, Rose

  531. Tzu, Sun

    Index U

  532. U.S. Army Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM)
    Onderdeel van de Amerikaanse krijgsmacht dat cyberspaceoperaties coördineert en de verschillende Amerikaanse militaire netwerken op elkaar afstemt. Het is ondergeschikt aan het U.S. Strategic Command en is gevestigd in Fort George G. Meade in Maryland.
    • [05.10.2016] Battles of the future will be fought in multiple domains, senior leaders say - Sean Kimmons
      Senior leaders say that the U.S. Army’s dominance is in danger when it comes to future warfare. Russia and its proxy forces used cyberattacks and electronic warfare equipment to jam communication networks, while using unmanned aerial vehicles to set up artillery fires, and advanced air defense missiles to gain air superiority without airplanes. And the Chinese military is using disputed islands in the South China Sea to influence maritime missions. General David Perkins, commander of the Army Training and Doctrine Command: “They are fracturing our way of war by using other domains.” The Army of the future must be prepared for multi-domain battle, a battle taking place not just in the domains of air and land, but also in the domains of sea, space, and cyberspace. Such an army would employ infantrymen with cyberspace skills, innovative air defense systems to deter enemy aircraft, and even ground-to-ground missiles to target enemy ships. This requires sophisticated air defense capabilities that are not currently in our unit inventories. The changing character of war is unlike anything our current force has ever experienced in intensity and lethality. The implementation the multi-domain battle concept will be heavily influenced by human-machine systems. Autonomous assistance from technology will play a role on the future battlefield, but soldiers and other military members will still be making the decisions: using machines to empower the human, not vice versa.

    • [19.10.2016] Leadership change a reflection of steady progress for Army Cyber Command - Mike Milord

  533. U.S. Cyber Consequences Unit (US-CCU)

  534. U.S. Department of Defence (DoD)

    Index V

  535. Valeriano, Brandon / Maness, Ryan C.
    • [2014] The dynamics of cyber conflict between rival antagonists, 2001-11
      In: Journal of Peace Research, 51(3): 347-360. May 2014.

    • [2015] Cyber War versus Cyber Realities: Cyber Conflict in the International System
      Oxford University Press.
      Much of the talk centered on the concept of cyber conflict and the changing dynamic of future conflict is founded on the study of spectacular flights of imagination of what could be. This book enters into the debate to push discussion of the issue toward realistic evaluation of the tactic in modern international interactions. It examines information on all cyber incidents and disputes in the last decade in order to delineate the patterns of cyber conflict as reflected by evidence. The goal is to develop a theory of cyber conflict, analyze the empirical patterns of cyber conflict between antagonists, investigate the impact of cyber conflict on foreign policy interactions, delve deeper with a close examination of some recent and popular cyber incidents, and finally, develop a set of policy recommendations that deal with the emerging threat. The authors argue that restraint is the norm in cyberspace and suggests that there is evidence this norm can influence how the tactic is used in the future.

  536. Vanity Fair

  537. Veeramachaneni, Kaylan / Arnaldo, Ignacia e.o.

  538. Ventre, Daniel
    • [2007] La guerre de l’information
      Hermes-Lavoisier. October 2007.

    • [2009] Information Warfare
      Wiley-ISTE. October 12, 2009.
      An introduction to the concept of information warfare, covering its evolution over the last decade and its developments among China, Russia, Japan, India, and Singapore. Ventre describes various conceptions of information warfare, along with how they function in military, diplomatic, political, and economic contexts. Notable cyber attacks are analyzed, the challenges faced by countries who fail to secure their cyberspace (Japan, the US, etc.) are enumerated, and ways to distinguish between cybercrime, cyberwarfare, and cyberterrrorism are discussed.

    • [2010] (ed.) Cyberguerre et guerre de l’information. Stratégies, règles, enjeux
      Hermes-Lavoisier. July 2010.
      Cyberspace is a theater of expression and confrontation of power on which state and non state actors perform. Faced with the broad spectrum of cyber attacks, many states, including France, have put cybersecurity to the rank of national security and defense. This book offers a reflection on the key concepts of ‘information warfare’ and ‘cyber war’ in order to understand the mechanisms, logicsand modalities that characterize the balance of power within of cyberspace. The historical, strategic and operational dimension cyber attacks are described.

    • [2011a] Cyberespace et acteurs du cyberconflit
      Hermes-Lavoisier. April 2011.

    • [2011b] Cyberattaque et Cyberdéfense | idem (Google Books)
      Hermes-Lavoisier. August 2011.

    • [2011c] (ed.) Cyberwar and Information Warfare | idem (Google Books)
      Wiley-ISTE. August 15, 2011.
      Integrating empirical, conceptual, and theoretical approaches, Ventre presents the thinking of researchers and experts in the fields of cybersecurity, cyberdefense, and information warfare. The processes of information warfare and cyberwarfare is analyzed through the historical, operational and strategic perspectives of cyberattacks.

    • [2012a] Israël: cyberdéfense et cyberguerre
      01net.entreprises, 30.02.2012.

    • [2012b] (ed.) Cyber Conflict: Competing National Perspectives
      Wiley-ISTE. April 2012.
      Includes: (2) Cuba: Towards an Active Cyber-defense; (3) French Perspectives on Cyber-conflict; (6) Cyberspace in Japan’s New Defense Strategy; (10) Conclusion.

    • [2015] (ed.) Chinese Cybersecurity and Defense
      Wiley-ISTE. April 20, 2015.
      Cyberdefense has become a major issue on the international scene. China is observed, criticized, and designated by many states as a major player in the global cyber-insecurity. The U.S. is building their cyberdefense strategy against the «Chinese threat». It is therefore important to better understand today’s challenges related to cyber dimension in regard of the rise of China. Contributions from international researchers provide cross perspectives on China, its strategies and policies for cybersecurity and cyberdefense. These issues have now gained major strategic dimension: Is Cyberspace changing the scene of international relations? How China does apprehend cybersecurity and cyberdefense? What are the issues, challenges? What is the role of China in the global cyberspace?

  539. Vitel, Philippe / Bliddal, Henrik

  540. Voetelink, Joop

  541. Volkskrant, De (VK)

  542. VPRO

  543. Vrij Nederland (VN)

    Index W

  544. Wall Street Journal, The (WSJ)

  545. Waltz, Edward

  546. Walzer, Michael

  547. War is Boring

  548. Warbroek, Boudewijn

  549. Washington Post, The (WP)

  550. Washington Times, The

  551. Waterman, Shaun

  552. Watts, Duncan James
    • [1997] The structure and dynamics of small-world systems
      PhD thesis. Cornell University.

    • [1999] Networks, Dynamics, and the Small-World Phenomenon
      In: American Journal of Sociology, 105(2):493-527. September 1999.

    • [2002] A simple model of global cascades on random networks
      In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(9): 5766-5771
      Large cascades can be triggered by small initial shocks. This phenomenon manifests itself as diversely as cultural fads, collective action, the diffusion of norms and innovations, and cascading failures in infrastructure and organizational networks. Watts presents a possible explanation of this phenomenon in terms of a sparse, random network of interacting agents whose decisions are determined by the actions of their neighbors according to a simple threshold rule.

    • [2004] Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age
      W. W. Norton & Company.
      The strong small world claim is that everyone is connected by an average of only six degrees of separation. A small-world internet is efficient but also vulnerable to malicious hackers. A small-world electricity network delivers power well, but also enables minor faults to ‘cascade’ into catastrophic blackouts. Small-world networks, in other words, combine robustness with sometimes surprising fragility.

  553. Waxman, Matthew C.
    • [2011] Cyber-Attacks and the Use of Force
      In: Yale Journal of International Law, 36(2): 421-59.

    • [2013] Self-Defensive Force Against Cyber Attacks: Legal, Strategic and Political Dimensions
      In: International Law Studies, 89.
      When does a cyber-attack or threat of cyber-attack give rise to a right of self-defense — including armed self-defense — and when should it? Waxman examines these questions through three lenses: (1) a legal perspective: the range of reasonable interpretations of self-defense rights as applied to cyber-attacks, and the relative merits of interpretations within that range; (2) a strategic perspective: linking a purported right of armed self-defense to long-term policy interests including security and stability; and (3) a political perspective: considering the situational context in which government decision-makers will face these issues and predictive judgments about the reactions to cyber-crises of influential actors in the international system. Waxman shows specifically how development of politics, strategy, and law will likely play out interdependently with respect to particular cyber-attacks.

  554. Webroot

  555. Webwereld

  556. Weiss, Joseph

  557. Welt, Die

  558. Wentz, Larry K. / Barry, Charles L. / Starr, Stuart H. (eds.)

  559. Werber, Niels

  560. Werner, Kathrin

  561. Wheeler, Ashley Wheeler

  562. Whitman, Michael E. / Mattord, Verma

  563. Wikipedia

  564. Wikileaks

  565. Williams, Phil

  566. Wingfield, Thomas C.

  567. Winkler, Ira

  568. Wired

  569. Wittes, Benjamin / Blum. Gabriella
    • [2015] The Future of Violence: Robots and Germs, Hackers and Drones — Confronting A New Age of Threat
      From drone warfare in the Middle East to digital spying by the NSA, the U.S. government has harnessed the power of cutting-edge technology to awesome effect. But what happens when ordinary people have the same tools at their fingertips? Advances in cybertechnology, biotechnology, and robotics mean that more people than ever before have access to potentially dangerous technologies —from drones to computer networks and biological agents— which could be used to attack states and private citizens alike. If national governments can no longer adequately protect us from harm, they will lose their legitimacy. Governments, companies, and citizens must rethink their security efforts to protect lives and liberty. In this brave new world where many little brothers are as menacing as any Big Brother, safeguarding our liberty and privacy may require strong domestic and international surveillance and regulatory controls.

  570. World Economic Forum (WEF) |

  571. Woude, Maurice R. van der

  572. WRR - Wetenschappelijke Raad van het Regeringsbebeleid

  573. Wyke, James

    Index X

  574. Xinhuanet
      Xinhua (China Nieuws) dat rechtstreeks onder het kabinet valt, is hét persbureau dat de officiële standpunten van de Chinese overheid naar buiten brengt. De nieuwssite publiceert haar berichten in zes buitenlandse talen: Engels, Frans, Spaans, Russisch, Arabisch, Japans. Er werken zo’n 15.000 mensen bij Xinhua, waarvan ongeveer 7.000 journalisten.

    Index Y

  575. Yahoo! News

  576. Yoo, Christopher S.
    • [2015] Cyber Espionage or Cyberwar?: International Law, Domestic Law, and Self-Protective Measures
      Faculty Scholarship. Paper 1540.
      Scholars have spent considerable effort determining how the law of war (particularly jus ad bellum and jus in bello) applies to cyber conflicts, epitomized by the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. Many prominent cyber operations fall outside the law of war, including the surveillance programs that Edward Snowden has alleged were conducted by the National Security Agency, the distributed denial of service attacks launched against Estonia and Georgia in 2007 and 2008, the 2008 Stuxnet virus designed to hinder the Iranian nuclear program, and the unrestricted cyber warfare described in the 1999 book by two Chinese army colonels. Such conduct is instead relegated to the law of espionage and is thus governed almost entirely by domestic law. The absence of an overarching international law solution to this problem heightens the importance of technological self-protective measures.

  577. YouTube

    Index Z

  578. ZDNet

  579. Zetter, Kim

  580. Zhu, Bonnie / Joseph, Anthony / Sastry, Shankar

  581. Ziolkowski, Katherina J.

  582. Zittrain, Jonathan


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03 October, 2017
Eerst gepubliceerd: Jan, 2015